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When we talk about electronics it is sometimes easier to use a picture to describe what we are talking about. Those pictures are called a schematic. A schematic is a picture representation of what we are talking about in electronics. The hard part tends to be finding the parts that are represented in the drawing. Above is a schematic of a battery hooked up to a light bulb. Here is what it looks like in real life. We have used a standard Duracell 9V battery and a light bulb.
Off-The-Shelf Hacker: Read Schematics Like a Pro
Let's place the frame so its bottom-left corner runs right over our origin the small dotted cross, in a static spot on the schematic. After placing a part, the add tool will assume you want to add another -- a new frame should start following your cursor.How to Wire a Transformer - How to Wire a Doorbell
To get out of the add-mode either hit escape ESC twice or just select a different tool. Right now your schematic is an untitled temporary file living in your computer's ether.
Name your schematic something descriptive. How about " BareBonesArduino.
Next we'll add four different parts all devoted to our voltage supply input. Use the add tool for these parts:. Then left click again when it's where it needs to be.
Hook up schematics
Next we'll add the main component of the design -- the ATmega microprocessor -- as well as some components to support it. Here are the parts we'll add:. To rotate parts as your placing them, either select one of the four options on the rotate toolbar -- -- or right click before placing the part.
Place your microcontroller in the center of the frame, then add the other parts around it like so:. Three connectors will finish off our design. One 8-pin connector to break out the analog pins, a 6-pin serial programming header, and a 2x3-pin ICSP programming header. Here are the three parts to add for this step:.
With all of the parts added to our schematic, it's time to wire them together. There's one major caveat here before we start: even though we're wiring parts on the schematic, we not going to use the WIRE tool -- -- to connect them together. Instead, we'll use the NET tool -- left toolbar, or under the Draw menu.
To use the NET tool, hover over the very end of a pin as close as possible, zoom in if you have toand left-click once to start a wire. Now a green line should be following your mouse cursor around.
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To terminate the net, left-click on either another pin or a net. The hard part, sometimes, is identifying which part on a circuit symbol is actually a pin. Usually they're recognizable by a thin, horizontal, red line off to the side of a part. Sometimes not always they're labeled with a pin number. Make sure you click on the very end of the pin when you start or finish a net route. Whenever a net splits in two directions a junction node is created. This signifies that all three intersecting nets are connected.
If two nets cross, but there's not a junction, those nets are not connected. Next we'll route the ATmega to its supporting circuitry. The remaining nets we have to make are not going to be as easy to cleanly route. You could do it, it would work, but it'd be really ugly. Instead, we'll make net "stubs" and give them unique names to connect them.
Schematics are the symbolic wiring road maps of electronic devices. The job of the schematic is to show you how to hook everything up. I have a strong feeling that one or more wires may be hooked up incorrectly at the moment and causing my starting problems. It does pick up wierd stuff, like it'll. Hdmi Cable With Ethernet Wiring Diagram Most Software Wiring Diagram Hdmi Hook Up Diagrams. Source.
We'll start by adding short, one-sided nets to each of the six pins on the serial connector. Begin by starting a net at a pin, just as you've been doing.
The WIRE tool would be better-named as a line-drawing tool, NET does a better job of connecting components. Solution Hook-up Diagram; Type Controls This hook-up diagram shows input/output wiring including initiation methods for proper hook up of Anti- tiedown. trailer wiring harness toyota tundra chevy truck ignition coil wiring racing cdi wiring diagram 97 ford explorer radio wiring diagram.
Terminate the net by left-clicking a few grid-lengths over to the right of the pin. Then, instead of routing to another pin, just hit ESC to finish the route. When you're done, it should look like this:.
Next, we'll use the NAME tool -- left toolbar, or under the Edit menu -- to name each of the six nets. With the NAME tool selected, clicking on a net should open a new dialog. Start by naming the net connected to the top, GND pin.
Delete the auto-generated name e. This should result in a warning dialog, asking you if you want to connect this net to all of the other nets named "GND" that would be every net connected to a GND symbol. This should spawn a piece of text that says "GND", left-click again to place the label down right on top of your net.
Follow that same order of operations for the remaining five net stubs. For the other named nets, we'll need to create this same stub somewhere else.
Where exactly? Even though there's no green net connecting these pins, every net with the same, exact name is actually connected. We need to do a lot of the same to connect the 2x3 programming header to the ATmega Phew -- you're done. Get excited, it's about time to lay out a PCB! When your schematic is done, it should look a little something like this:. The schematic layout is done, but there are a few tips and tricks we'd like to share before moving over to the PCB layout portion of the tutorial.
Every component on your schematic should have two editable text fields: a name and a value. Every component on the schematic should have a unique name. You can use the NAME tool -- on any component to change the name. A part's value allows you to define unique characteristics of that part. For example, you can set a resistor's resistance, or a capacitor's capacitance. The importance of a part's value depends on what type of component it is.
For parts like resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc. The SHOW tool -- -- is very useful for verifying that pins across your schematic are connected correctly. If you use SHOW on a net, every pin it's connected to should light up. If you're dubious of the fact that two like-named nets are connected, give the SHOW tool a try. As an alternative to show, you can temporarily MOVE a part a part to make sure nets are connected to it.
Use MOVE to pick a part up, and the nets connected to it should bend and adjust to remain so. If all the nets connected to a part MOVE with it, all connections are good. If a net isn't moving along with the part, it's not connected to the pin correctly. Double check to make sure you routed to the very end of the pin, and not a bit further:. Any tool that you use on a single component, can also be used on a group of them. In most residential applications a Romex cable will be used which will include a bare groundwhite neutral and black hot conductor.
GFCI outlet requirements mandate that line terminals identified by color require the white line conductor neutral to connect to the silver line terminal and the black line conductor hot to connect to the brass line terminal. Load essentially means using the protected power opposed to supplying the power. Load terminals identified by color require the white load conductor or conductors to connect to the silver load terminal and the black load conductor or conductors to connect to the brass load terminal.
This is why it is imperative to put the correct wires on the correct screws. If any conductor is not correctly attached to the correct screw, the GFCI outlet will not work. Visit us at tips for common electrical problems in houses for additional help. We schedule an electrician Mesa AZ homeowners and businesses can call for electrical help 7 days a week during office hours.
Our in-office electrician has over 30 years of experience as a journeyman electrician and is sure to be able to help you will any electrical issue that you are experiencing. Give us a call; you will be happy you did! Remove the attached finish plate. Confirm that the power is shut off with a voltage tester. Do not depend on the circuit breaker labels, often times these are mislabeled. Step 2: Take Out the Existing Electrical Outlet Remove the 2 mounting screws that are securing the existing electrical outlet and pull it all the way out of the box.
Disconnect the attached wires on the existing electrical outlet from the terminal screws. Step 4: Identify the Hot Conductors Line Side Note: If only 1 black, 1 white and 1 green or bare wire are present in the electrical outlet box you can skip past this step. Pull the wires out of the electrical box and separate all black and white conductors so no one can contact another.
Your green or bare conductors can and should remain spliced together. Turn the power back on and using your voltage tester, carefully touch the black probe to the ground wire. Using the red probe on your voltage tester, touch each black wire until you find the live one. This is the identified hot wire and it will get attach on the line side brass terminal screw on your new GFCI outlet.
Keeping the red probe in contact with the identified hot black wire, remove the other probe from the ground and touch each individual white conductor until voltage is detected again. This will be the identified white wire and it will get attached on the line side silver terminal screw on your new GFCI outlet. Carefully cap off the ends of each of these identified conductors with your yellow wire nuts.
Do not put any wires together, the power is still on! Turn all electrical power off again. Step 5: Terminate the Conductors Note: Line and load will be clearly labeled on the back of the GFCI outlet and often times the load side will be covered with a piece of tape. Loosen the silver and brass terminal screws on the line side of the outlet.
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If more than 1 black and 1 white conductor are in the electrical box, also loosen the load side silver and brass terminal screws. Take the black hot wire the identified black one with the yellow wire nut on it. It gets attached on the line side brass screw. Take the identified white wire the white wire with the yellow wire nut on it.
It gets attached on the line side silver screw.